Wednesday, August 12, 2009

Etymology of 86 - Restaurant Lingo

Speaking from well worn first hand experience, 86 is a term used in the restaurant and bar industry to denote a patron that has been permanent disbarred from entering the premises, usually due to disorderly behavior. To say that a person has been 86'd is to convey that they have crossed the line and been instructed that their presence in the establishment will no longer be tolerated.

It is also frequently used as terminology in busy commercial kitchens when the supply of a particular item has run out, such as "86 on the scallions!" or writing the item on a posted list of groceries that need to be resupplied. Waitstaff similarly use the term for menu items that are unavailable for the day or for special adjustments to an order, such as "86 the pickle and onions" to keep ingredients off of a sandwich.

Like most slang terms, the etymology of the term "86" is both sloppy and colorful. Stories abound on the background of the word, and nearly every kitchen manager or seasoned bar tender has their own version of how they think the whole thing got started, some of which sound more likely than others.

The greater majority of origin stories in circulation involve alcohol laws and/or prohibition. One very convenient etymology is that there was once a state law in New York called Article 86 that laid out exactly where the line was for a patron to be too intoxicated for a bartender to legally continue serving him drinks. However, precursory research performed by me (i.e. googling) failed to uncover any concrete citations that there was ever any such law. However, this origin makes considerably more sense than most other etymologies of the term.

Other alcohol related origins are related to prohibition, which converges with the first appearance of the term during the 1930's. One colorful, albeit unlikely, story is that the term got started as a local code word at a New York speakeasy called Chumley's. The speakeasy was located at a corner with a main entrance on one street and a side entrance at 86 Bedford Place. When the cops were spotted approaching the speakeasy for a raid or inspection, proprietors and patrons would yelp "86 everybody!" and they everybody would make for the side door at 86 Bedford.

Another restaurant by the name of Delmonico's in New York is often cited as being the home of the term 86. During the late 19th Century, the restaurant supposedly had a numbered menu on which item 86 was the house steak. Item 86 was so popular that it was often out of stock in the kitchen, and the kitchen staff began referring to other items as being similarly "86'd" when they ran out. The kitchen staff took the term to other kitchens through their careers and the term spread throughout the industry. As pleasing as this story may be, it is unlikely to be the true origin for a handful of obvious reasons, including the fact that the term did not actually appear until some 50 years after the item 86 at Delmonico's anecdote is supposed to have taken place.

A decidedly different word history for 86 is that it originated amongst the codes of, not bartenders or surly cooks, but freckle faced soda jerks. Counter jumpers at the soda fountain bars of yesteryear had an extensive coded system of numbers to indicate different items. 33 was a cherry Coke, 19 for a banana split. 99 or 98 meant that manager or assistant manager was coming, and it was time to look sharp. 86 was the number for being out of stock of an item. Another explanation that some bartenders put forward is that 86 was a nonsense codeword that allowed bar and waitstaff to communicate that a customer needed to be removed. They would say 86 as it rhymed with nix, another popular slang term of the early 20th century.

Still, the origin stories of the term 86 are deeply varied, and you'll likely find some completely different version of the etymology by asking any seasoned restaurant or bar worker. One inexplicably morbid explanation is that 86 is the dimensions of a grave: six feet deep and eight feet long. Another history holds that the cauldrons that were used during the Awesome Depression could only hold 85 cups worth soup, and the soup was officially 86'd after that. That particular origin story is an example of what you run across pretty frequently in etymology: people just making shit up.

Tuesday, August 11, 2009

Etymology of Hip

From glib indifference to brazen flaunting, everyone has their own take on what's hip. The etymology of the word itself is as diffuse as its sense, with etymologists having a wide range of takes on how the word entered the slang lexicon.

One line of thinking holds that the word "hip" comes from a word in the Wolof language of West Africa: hepicat, meaning "one who has his eyes open." This is plausible, as it is a bit unclear how the term "hip cat" came into popularity, and the general sense of hipness is to be in the know, and certainly with one's eyes open.

Another theory posits that the term came about during the early days of drug culture in the West, where influential thinkers dabbled with opium while reclining on their sides, sitting on their hips. Seriously, there's etymologists who argue this was the origin of the word "hip," presumably between munching on cheese curls and postulating "what if, like, the whole universe is really just the size of my pinky nail, man," etc.

The etymology that makes sense to me is discussed in William and Mary Morris's dictionary of word origins. During the first half of the 1900's, soldiers would march in military to the drum of "HEP, two, three, four-HEP, two, three, four." Jazz musicians interacting with soldiers or returning from war incorporated the term "hep" into their vocabulary and started using it to refer to musicians who were able to keep time. Later, the term spread within the jazz community as hep people who were in the know, and word eventually to denote people who could keep time with other trends.

If this is actually the case, then we are left with the particularly odd conclusion that origins of the word "hippy" are rooted in the boots of military marching orders. Groovy.

Sunday, August 9, 2009

Etymology of Landlubber

A landlubber is someone who is no good at sea. Thanks no doubt to some terrible aberration of their soul or other sad personal flaw, they are simply not worth much once cast onto the open water.

While many people think that the word landlubber is simply a mispronunciation of land-lover, they are Wrong, and you should tell them so. While these ungainly, clumsy souls are cartoonishly portrayed as literally kissing the ground once their ships return to port, the history of the word landlubber has nothing to do with such a mispronunciation, and landlubbers are not necessarily aroused by dirt.

Instead, landlubbers can be parsed as follows: land - lubber. Land is land. The word "lubber" simply refers to butterfingered, lumbering nincompoops. Landlubbers were usually rookie sailors who had yet to develop their sea legs. The old timers would rib them calling the new meat landlubber, implying that he'd probably be just as bumbling and generally useless on shore as elsewhere.

Saturday, July 4, 2009

Etymology of Yankee

Happy Independence Day, imperialist stooges.

The history of the term Yankee, or Yank, appears to largely be in dispute, with Oxford admitting that the definite origin of the word remains unclear. However, there are a couple popular theories.

One common etymology of Yankee holds that it came from a slanderous term that Dutch settlers in America used for English Colonists. They derisively referred to the Brits as Little John, or Janke, and the name stuck as yanks.

Conversely, two popular surnames for the Dutch during the colonial area were "Jan" and "Kees." This eventually turned into a contemptuous name for Dutch settlers in the northeast, "Jankies," which finally evolved into Yankees, a term applied from anyone from the American northeast or even to citizens of the United States itself.


Friday, June 19, 2009

Etymology of "creep"

Creep is derived from the Old English root that mean to move or walk with the body close to the ground and is related to the term "cripple."

The history of the slang use of the term word "creep" seems to date back to around 1860 to describe the sensation of feeling non-present creatures crawling over ones skin.

Creep began being used to describe a person during the 1930's and meant roughly the same thing as a similar slang terms like a drip or goon, but on a drip or goon that gives you the shivers.


Morris, William and Mary. Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins

Thursday, June 18, 2009

Etymology of Hunky-dory

According to William and Mary Morris's 1967 Dictionary of Word and Phrases, the decidedly dorky colloquilism "hunky-dory" is probably rooted in the slang used at a Dutch settlement in New Amsterdam where hunk was close to the Dutch word honk, meaning goal.

However, the following story behind the term "everything's hunky dory" is decidedly more entertaining, even if it probably isn't actually true. In Yokahama, Kapan, the principal street that sailor's on shore leave kept an eye for to keep from getting lost was called Hunchodori Street. So long as sailor wandering around knew where to find Hunchodori Street, he knew he could find his way back to the ship.

A similar version of this history of "hunky dory" is that the term honcho-dori means the equivalent of main street for towns that have one. U.S. Sailors may have developed the habit of asking for directions using a bastardization of the word when in any number of cities.

The term has been in use in the english language since the middle of the 19th Century.

Friday, June 12, 2009

Etymology of Rhododendron

cue the trumpets

I always thought that the name of this hillside brush sounded like the name of a dinosaur or evil comic book character. Rhododendron, Eater of Souls, or something like that. Sadly the etymology of rhododendron is disappointingly boring. It hasn't changed from the original L. rhododendron, meaning "rose tree."

Wednesday, June 10, 2009

Eymology of Paparazzi

The term paparazzi orginated in the Fellini's 1960 film, La Dolce Vita, after the photographer character named Paparazzo. The name was probably rooted in an older Italian term, papariare, meaning to "wander about wasting time," but it remains unclear where exactly Fellini came up with the name. The term was used in the media to refer to photographers in Time article the following year.